Marine-derived Ca-Mg complex influences lipid and glucose metabolism, serum metabolites, colostrum profile, and stress hormone in sows over four-parity period
Among different nutrients, the requirement for minerals is small, but it has a significant impact on sow longevity and reproduction performance. This study was carried out to see the beneficial effects of marine-derived Ca-Mg complex on the reproductive performance of sows during four parities periods. Seventy-two gilts [(Yorkshire × Landrace) × Duroc], with an average body weight of 181 kg, were randomly allocated to three groups; CON (basal diet), CM1 (CON - MgO - 0.3% limestone + 0.4% Ca-Mg complex), and CM2 (CON - MgO - 0.7% limestone + 0.4% Ca-Mg complex). The relative expression of <italic>SCD</italic> gene was downregulated in the umbilical cord of piglets born to CM1 and CM2 sows compared with the CON sows during parity 3 and 4. During the parity 2, 3 and 4, <italic>SLC2A2 </italic>and <italic>FABP4</italic> genes were upregulated in the umbilical cord of piglets born to CM2 sows and placenta tissue of sows from CM1 groups, respectively. Ca-Mg complex increased (<italic>P</italic> < 0.05) Ca and Mg concentrations in sows and their piglets’ serum as well as in colostrum regardless of parities. The serum vitamin D concentration was higher (<italic>P</italic> < 0.05) in their first parity, whereas serum prolactin and estrogen concentrations were higher (<italic>P</italic> < 0.05) during the fourth and third parity, respectively. The growth hormone concentrations were higher (<italic>P</italic> < 0.05) in the piglets born to sows during the first and second parity. The fat and immunoglobulin A (IgA) concentrations in colostrum were higher (<italic>P</italic> < 0.05) during third and fourth parity, respectively. A reduction (<italic>P</italic> < 0.05) in saliva cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine concentrations was observed in CM1 and CM2 sow groups compared with CON after farrowing regardless of parity, however before farrowing, a reduction in norepinephrine was observed. Before farrowing, the epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations were higher (<italic>P</italic> < 0.05) during the first and second parity. After farrowing, the concentration of these hormones was higher during the second parity. Taken together, sows’ parity and Ca-Mg complex supplementation influenced lipid and glucose metabolism-associated genes expression, serum metabolites, colostrum nutrient, and stress hormones.