Insect peptide CopA3 promotes proliferation and PAX7 and MYOD expression in porcine muscle satellite cells
Insects are a valuable natural source that can produce a variety of bioactive compounds due to their increasing species diversity. CopA3 is an antimicrobial peptide derived from <italic>Copris tripartitus</italic> (i.e., the dung beetle). It is known to increase the proliferation of colonic epithelial and neuronal stem cells by regulating cell cycle. This research hypothesized that CopA3 can promote the proliferation of porcine muscle satellite cells (MSCs). The effects of CopA3 on porcine MSCs, which are important for muscle growth and regeneration, remain unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of CopA3 on porcine MSCs. According to viability results, we designed four groups: control (without CopA3) and three treatment groups (treated with 5,10, and 25 μg/mL of CopA3). At a CopA3 concentration of 5 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL, the proliferation of MSCs increased more than that observed in the control group. Furthermore, compared to that in the control, CopA3 treatment increased the S phase but decreased the G0/G1 phase ratio. Additionally, early and late apoptotic cells were found to be decreased in the 5 μg/mL group. The expressions of the myogenesis-related transcription factor PAX7 and MYOD proteins were significantly upregulated in the 5 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL groups, whereas the MYOG protein remained undetected in all group. This study suggested that CopA3 promotes muscle cell proliferation by regulating the cell cycle of MSCs and can regulate the activity of MSCs by increasing the expressions of PAX7 and MYOD.