Study on the reduction of heterocyclic amines by marinated natural materials in pork belly

Hea Jin Kang1, Seung Yun Lee1, Da Young Lee1, Ji Hyeop Kang1, Jae Hyeon Kim1, Hyun Woo Kim1, Jae Won Jeong1, Dong Hoon Oh1, Sun Jin Hur1,*
Author Information & Copyright
1Chung-Ang University, Anseong-si 17546, Korea.
*Corresponding Author: Sun Jin Hur, Chung-Ang University, Anseong-si 17546, Korea, Republic of. E-mail:

© Copyright 2022 Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study was conducted to determine the effect of natural ingredient seasoning on the reduction of heterocyclic amine (HCA) production that may occur when pork belly is cooked at a very high temperature for a long time. Pork belly seasoned with natural ingredients, such as natural spices, blackcurrant, and red pepper paste, was cooked using the most common cooking methods, such as boiling, pan fry, and barbecue. HCAs in pork belly were extracted through solid-phase extraction and analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography. For short-term toxicity, a mouse model was used to analyze weight, feed intake, organ weight, and length; hematology and serology analysis were also performed. Results revealed that HCAs formed only when heating was performed at a very high temperature for a long time, not under general cooking conditions. Although the toxicity levels were not dangerous, the method showing the relatively highest toxicity among various cooking methods was barbecue, and the natural material with the highest toxicity reduction effect was blackcurrant. Furthermore, seasoning pork belly with natural materials containing a large amount of antioxidants, such as vitamin C, can reduce the production of toxic substances, such as HCAs, even if pork belly is heated to high temperatures.

Keywords: Pork belly; Heterocyclic amines; Natural materials; Blackcurrant; Antioxidants