Development of semi-dried goat meat jerky using tenderizers considering the preferences of the elderly
Elderly people avoid eating red meat due to its texture and stiffness; they deprive them of rich sources of nutrients. In addition, food-related diseases are exponentially increasing due to using synthetic additives in food products. Therefore, this research aimed to develop semi-dried goat meat jerky considering geriatric preferences by using natural tenderizers and nitrate. Four treatments were formulated NC (synthetic nitrite without tenderizers), PC (Swiss chard without tenderizers), T1 (Swiss chard with pineapple powder), and T2 (Swiss chard with pineapple and tomato powder). T1 and T2 had higher processing yield, and rehydration capacity compared with NC and PC. The fat content of T1 and T2 was lower than the control groups. Moisture was significantly higher in T1, NC, and T2 than in PC (p<0.05). T2 showed the lowest water activity (0.87), lowest shear force (4.82 kgf), and lowest total plate count (TPC). The lowest pH and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were observed in T1 and T2. T1 showed the lowest lightness and the maximum redness (p<0.05) while PC showed the lowest yellowness. During the storage period, moisture and pH decreased, and TPC and TBARS significantly increased whereas water activity is stable regardless of the treatment. Myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI) and SDS-PAGE gel revealed that T1 and T2 more effectively converted protein to polypeptides. In addition, tenderizers positively affected thrombogenicity, atherogenicity, and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic indices. T2 observed the highest overall sensory acceptance by reducing goaty flavor. Overall, jerky treated with tenderizers is easily chewable and digestible for the elderly due to its tenderness and essential fatty acids that would be senior-friendly food.