Effects of Single and Complex Probiotics in Growing-Finishing Pigs and Swine Compost

Kyeongho Jeon1, Minho Song2, Jihwan Lee3, Hanjin Oh1, Seyeon Chang1, Dongcheol Song1, Jaewoo An1, Hyunah Cho1, Sehyun Park1, Hyeunbum Kim4,*, Jinho Cho1,**
Author Information & Copyright
1Department of Animal Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Korea.
2Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.
3Department of Poultry Science, University of Georgia (UGA), Athens, Georgia 30602, United States.
4Department of Animal Resource and Science, Dankook University, Cheonan 31116, Korea.
*Corresponding Author: Hyeunbum Kim, Department of Animal Resource and Science, Dankook University, Cheonan 31116, Korea, Republic of. E-mail:
**Corresponding Author: Jinho Cho, Department of Animal Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Korea, Republic of. E-mail:

© Copyright 2023 Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study was conducted to supplement single and complex probiotics to investigate the effect on growing-finishing pigs and compost. In experiment 1, the 64 crossbred [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc] pigs with an initial body weight of 18.75 ± 0.33 kg and a birth of 63 days were assigned to a completely randomized four treatment groups based on the initial body weight (4 pigs in a pen with 4 replicate pens for each treatment). For 13 weeks, the dietary treatments were provided: 1) Control (CON; basal diet), 2) T1 (CON + 0.2% <italic>Bacillus subtilis</italic>), 3) T2 (CON + 0.2% <italic>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</italic>), 4) T3 (CON + 0.2%<italic> Bacillus subtilis</italic> + 0.2% <italic>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</italic>). In experiment 2, the pig manure was obtained from Chungbuk National University (Cheongju, Korea) swine farm. For 12 weeks, the supplementary treatments were provided: 1) CON, non-additive compost; 2) T1, spray <italic>Bacillus subtilis</italic> 10g per 3.306 m<sup>2</sup>; 3) T2, spray <italic>Bacillus subtilis</italic> 40 g per 3.306 m<sup>2</sup>; 4) T3, spray <italic>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</italic> 10g per 3.306 m<sup>2</sup>; 5) T4: spray <italic>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</italic> 40 g per 3.306 m<sup>2</sup>; 6) T5, spray <italic>Bacillus subtilis</italic> 5 g + <italic>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</italic> 5 g per 3.306 m<sup>2</sup>; 7) T6, spray <italic>Saccharomyces subtilis</italic> 20 g + <italic>S. cerevisiae</italic> 20 g per 3.306 m<sup>2</sup> and there were 6 replicates each treatment. In experiment 1, During the overall experimental period, T3 showed significantly improved (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) feed conversion ratio and average daily gain compared to other groups. In average maturity score, T3 showed significantly higher (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) than other groups. Supplementing complex probiotics group improved (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) H<sub>2</sub>S emissions and fecal microflora compared to the non-supplementing group.  In experiment 2, additive probiotics groups had no effect (<italic>p</italic> &gt; 0.05) on moisture content than the non-additive group at 9 and 12 weeks. T6 showed a significantly improved (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) average maturity score at all periods and ammonia emissions at 1 week and 4 weeks compared to other groups. In summary, supplementation complex probiotics induced positive effects on both pigs and compost.

Keywords: Compost Maturity; Finishing pigs; Growing pigs; Probiotics