Effects of Italian ryegrass with multi-enzymes supplementation on growth performance, gut microbial, and manure odor emission in finisher pig

Jun Seon Hong1, Yong-Dae Jeong1, Hyun Ju Park1, Yo Han Choi1, Ye Jin Min1, Chaehyun Kim1, Soo Hyeon Back1, Doo Wan Kim1, Yong Min Kim1, Jo Eun Kim1,*
Author Information & Copyright
1Swine Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Cheonan 31000, Korea.
*Corresponding Author: Jo Eun Kim, Swine Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Cheonan 31000, Korea, Republic of. E-mail:

© Copyright 2024 Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study investigated the effects of addition of Italian ryegrass with multi-enzyme on growth performance, fecal odor, and microbiome. The experiment had a two-factor factorial design, using three levels of Italian ryegrass (0%, 2.5%, and 5%) and two levels of multi-enzymes (no enzyme and commercially recommended level) to formulate experimental diets. In total, 60 crossbred LYD pigs (88.35 ± 2.57 kg) were allocated into six dietary treatments with five replicates. After four weeks, fecal samples were collected via rectal massage for microbiome and odorous compound analysis. Results showed no significant difference in growth performance, except for feed intake, which was higher in enzyme-added diets. Fecal microbiome exhibited no differences between treatments, with Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes being the major phyla, similar to the general pig population. Alpha and beta diversity analyses showed no significant differences. Odorous compounds displayed no significant differences, except for indoles influenced by the enzyme. In conclusion, 5% Italian ryegrass with multi-enzymes can be used as an alternative feed ingredient, having no negative effects on the growth performance, microbiome, and odorous compounds of growing pigs.

Keywords: enzyme; growth performance; Italian ryegrass; manure odor; microbiome