Effect of harvest dates on β-carotene content and forage quality of rye (Secale cereale L.) silage and hay
Received: Nov 03, 2020; Revised: Dec 13, 2020; Accepted: Dec 14, 2020
Published Online: Jan 04, 2021
Limited data about the effects of various factors on forage quality and β-carotene content of rye produced in South Korea are available, so this study investigated the effects in two preservation methods. Samples were collected from rye harvested every 5 days between April 25 and May 31, and comparisons were done among rye silage wilted for different periods of time and hay of three growth stages of rye. For the silage, dry matter (DM), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents increased with advanced maturity of rye, whereas crude protein, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), total digestible nutrients (TDN), relative feed value (RFV), and DM loss decreased (P < 0.0001). Wilting increased the DM content and pH value significantly (P < 0.0001). Silage harvested at the heading stage had the lowest pH value (4.45), propionic acid (0.83 g/kg DM), butyric acid (0 g/kg DM), and fungi and yeast populations (3.70 log CFU/g of FM); conversely, it had the highest lactic acid (9.7 g/kg DM), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (6.87 log CFU/g of FM), total microorganisms (TM) (7.33 log CFU/g of FM), and Flieg’s score (70) (P < 0.0001). Wilting elevated LAB and TM populations, but it had no consistent effect on other fermentation products. Both delayed harvest and prolonged wilting decreased β-carotene content. Rye silage harvested around May 9 (heading stage) with 24 h of wilting was preferred for highland, Pyeongchang. For rye hay, advanced maturity decreased DM loss, IVDMD, TDN, and RFV, but it increased DM, ADF, and NDF significantly (P < 0.05). β-carotene was decreased by delay of hay-making. Consequently, to attain lower DM loss and higher hay quality, the harvest date of May 9 (heading stage) is recommended.