Author Guidelines

File formats

The following word processor file formats are acceptable for the main manuscript document:

1. General Requirements

1) Manuscripts should be typed double-spaced (in Microsoft Word) with lines and pages consecutively using Times New Roman font at 10 points.

2) Arabic numbers are used. Weights and measures should be in System International (SI) units and temperature in the Celsius (centigrade scale)

3) The "p" for statistical significance should be italicized and in lower case letters.

4) Provide the manufacturer's name, city, and country in parentheses followed by drugs, chemicals, or instruments.

5) Tables and figures should be placed in separate sections at the end of the manuscript (not placed within the text).

6) Author must prepare photographs carefully so that clear image can be printed.

7) Authors are strongly encouraged to have the manuscript proofread by a native speaker of English or a language professional prior to submission.

2. Form of manuscripts

The original article should contain an abstract, key words, main text, acknowledgements, and references.

1) Title page

(1) The title should be limited to 20 words and there should be no abbreviations.

(2) Full names, institutional addresses and email addresses of all authors should be provided.

(3) The description of the corresponding author should include name, institution, mailing address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address.

2) Abstract

(1) The Abstract should not exceed 350 words.

(2) Please minimize the use of abbreviations and do not cite references in the abstract.

(3) The abstract should contain important objectives, materials and methods, results, conclusion, and applications. Use complete sentences and standard terms. Use of abbreviations in the abstract should be avoided.

3) Keywords

Three to six keywords are listed in the alphabetical order.

4) Introduction

The introduction section should explain the rationale for performing the study, background, objectives, and hypothesis.

5) Materials and Methods

The methods section should:

  • • Use subheadings to separate different methodologies.
  • • Obtain approval from their Institutional Review Board (IRB) or Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC), as appropriate, prior to manuscript submission.
  • • Describe established methods briefly, and simply cite a reference where readers can find more detail
  • • State all statistical tests and parameters

6) Results (with subheadings)

This should include the findings of the study including, if appropriate, results of statistical analysis which must be included either in the text or as tables and figures.

7) Discussion

(1) This section should discuss the implications of the findings in context of existing research and highlight limitations of the study.

(2) For study protocols and methodology manuscripts this section should include a discussion of any practical or operational issues involved in performing the study and any issues not covered in other sections. The Results and Discussion section may be combined.

8) Acknowledgment

(1) Please acknowledge anyone who contributed towards the article who does not meet the criteria for authorship including anyone who provided professional writing services or materials.

(2) Authors should obtain permission to acknowledge from all those mentioned in the Acknowledgements section.

9) References

Examples of the Vancouver reference style are shown below.

Example reference style:

  • Article within a journal
  • Smith JJ. The world of science. Am J Sci. 1999;36:234-5.
  • Article within a journal (no page numbers)
  • Rohrmann S, Overvad K, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Jakobsen MU, Egeberg R, Tjønneland A, et al. Meat consumption and mortality - results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. BMC Medicine. 2013;11:63.
  • Article within a journal by DOI
  • Slifka MK, Whitton JL. Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. Dig J Mol Med. 2000; doi:10.1007/s801090000086.
  • Article within a journal supplement
  • Frumin AM, Nussbaum J, Esposito M. Functional asplenia: demonstration of splenic activity by bone marrow scan. Blood 1979;59 Suppl 1:26-32.
  • Book chapter, or an article within a book
  • Wyllie AH, Kerr JFR, Currie AR. Cell death: the significance of apoptosis. In: Bourne GH, Danielli JF, Jeon KW, editors. International review of cytology. London: Academic; 1980. p. 251-306.
  • OnlineFirst chapter in a series (without a volume designation but with a DOI)
  • Saito Y, Hyuga H. Rate equation approaches to amplification of enantiomeric excess and chiral symmetry breaking. Top Curr Chem. 2007. doi:10.1007/128_2006_108.
  • Complete book, authored
  • Blenkinsopp A, Paxton P. Symptoms in the pharmacy: a guide to the management of common illness. 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science; 1998.
  • Online document
  • Doe J. Title of subordinate document. In: The dictionary of substances and their effects. Royal Society of Chemistry. 1999. http://www.rsc.org/dose/title of subordinate document. Accessed 15 Jan 1999.
  • Online database
  • Healthwise Knowledgebase. US Pharmacopeia, Rockville. 1998. http://www.healthwise.org. Accessed 21 Sept 1998.
  • Supplementary material/private homepage
  • Doe J. Title of supplementary material. 2000. http://www.privatehomepage.com. Accessed 22 Feb 2000.
  • University site
  • Doe, J: Title of preprint. http://www.uni-heidelberg.de/mydata.html (1999). Accessed 25 Dec 1999.
  • FTP site
  • Doe, J: Trivial HTTP, RFC2169. ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc2169.txt (1999). Accessed 12 Nov 1999.
  • Organization site
  • ISSN International Centre: The ISSN register. http://www.issn.org (2006). Accessed 20 Feb 2007.
  • Dataset with persistent identifier
  • Zheng L-Y, Guo X-S, He B, Sun L-J, Peng Y, Dong S-S, et al. Genome data from sweet and grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). GigaScience Database. 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.5524/100012.

10) Tables

When preparing tables, please follow the formatting instructions below.

  • • Tables should be numbered and cited in the text in sequence using Arabic numerals (i.e. Table 1, Table 2 etc.).
  • • Tables less than one A4 or Letter page in length can be placed in the appropriate location within the manuscript.
  • • Tables larger than one A4 or Letter page in length can be placed at the end of the document text file. Please cite and indicate where the table should appear at the relevant location in the text file so that the table can be added in the correct place during production.
  • • Tabular data provided as additional files can be uploaded as an Excel spreadsheet (.xls ) or comma separated values (.csv). Please use the standard file extensions.
  • • Table titles (max 15 words) should be included above the table, and legends (max 300 words) should be included underneath the table.
  • • Tables should not be embedded as figures or spreadsheet files, but should be formatted using ‘Table object’ function in your word processing program.
  • • Color and shading may not be used. Parts of the table can be highlighted using superscript, numbering, lettering, symbols or bold text, the meaning of which should be explained in a table legend.
  • • Commas should not be used to indicate numerical values.

11) Figures

When preparing figures, please follow the formatting instructions below.

  • • Figures should be provided as separate files, not embedded in the main manuscript file.
  • • Each figure of a manuscript should be submitted as a single file that fits on a single page in portrait format.
  • • Tables should NOT be submitted as figures but should be included in the main manuscript file.
  • • Multi-panel figures (those with parts a, b, c, d etc.) should be submitted as a single composite file that contains all parts of the figure.
  • • Figures should be numbered in the order they are first mentioned in the text, and uploaded in this order.
  • • Figures should be uploaded in the correct orientation.
  • • Figure titles (max 15 words) and legends (max 300 words) should be provided in the main manuscript, not in the graphic file.
  • • Figure keys should be incorporated into the graphic, not into the legend of the figure.
  • • Each figure should be closely cropped to minimize the amount of white space surrounding the illustration. Cropping figures improves accuracy when placing the figure in combination with other elements when the accepted manuscript is prepared for publication on our site.
  • • Individual figure files should not exceed 10 MB. If a suitable format is chosen, this file size is adequate for extremely high quality figures.

12) Figure file types

We accept the following file formats for figures:

  • • PDF (suitable for diagrams and/or images)
  • • Microsoft Word (suitable for diagrams and/or images, figures must be a single page)
  • • PowerPoint (suitable for diagrams and/or images, figures must be a single page)
  • • TIFF (suitable for images)
  • • JPEG (suitable for photographic images, less suitable for graphical images)
  • 13) Figure size and resolution

    Figures on the web:

    • • width of 600 pixels (standard), 1200 pixels (high resolution).

    Figures in the final PDF version:

    • • width of 85 mm for half page width figure
    • • width of 170 mm for full page width figure
    • • maximum height of 225 mm for figure and legend
    • • image resolution of approximately 300 dpi (dots per inch) at the final size

    Figures should be designed such that all information, including text, is legible at these dimensions. All lines should be wider than 0.25 pt when constrained to standard figure widths. All fonts must be embedded.