Feeding Strategies with Total Mixed Ration and Concentrate may Improve Feed Intake and Carcass Quality of Hanwoo Steers

Soohyung LEE1, Sang Moo LEE1, Jaehun LEE1, Eun Joong KIM1,*
Author Information & Copyright
1Department of Animal Science, Kyungpook National University, Sangju 37224, Korea.
*Corresponding Author: Eun Joong KIM, Department of Animal Science, Kyungpook National University, Sangju 37224, Korea, Republic of. Phone: +82-54-530-1228. E-mail:

© Copyright 2021 Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Received: Jun 21, 2021; Accepted: Jul 01, 2021

Published Online: Jul 26, 2021


This study examined the impact of using total mixed ration (TMR) and concentrate on feed intake, daily gain, carcass yield grade, and carcass quality grade of Hanwoo steers and its subsequent economic efficiency. Thirty six 7-month-old Hanwoo steers were assigned to one of the four treatment groups, and each group was divided into three repeated pens, with each repeated pen comprising three steers. The treatment groups were: 1) separate feeding with commercial concentrate and forage (namely, SCF) for the entire experimental period; 2) TMR feeding for a growing period followed by SCF for the early and late-fattening period (namely, TMRGSCF); 3) TMR feeding for growing and an early fattening period followed by SCF for the late-fattening period (namely, TMREFSCF); and 4) TMR feeding for the entire experimental period (namely, TMR). The results showed that the SCF treatment had significantly (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) higher feed intake during the growing period than other treatments. In contrast, it had little difference during early- and late-fattening as well as the whole period. Daily gain showed no significant difference during the growing period. However, it was significantly higher in SCF and TMREFSCF treatments for the early- and late-fattening period, respectively (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05). The daily gain during the total raising period is in the order of TMREFSCF &gt; TMRGSCF &gt; SCF &gt; TMR. Carcass characteristics, including carcass weight, loin eye muscle area, and carcass yield grade, did not significantly differ among different treatments. However, TMRW treatment, wherein TMR was fed for a long time, showed that the cold carcass weight was less compared with other treatments, but carcass yield grade was higher with thinner backfat. Backfat thickness was in the order of SCF &gt; TMRGSCF &gt; TMREFSCF &gt; TMR, showing that the thickness reduced with longer TMR feeding (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05). TMRGSCF, which numerically had a higher carcass quality grade, showed higher economic efficiency, whereas SCF showed low economic efficiency. In conclusion, it was more feasible to apply TMR strategy in the growing and early fattening period and then SCF for the early- or late-fattening period to improve carcass yield, quality grade, and economic efficiency.

Keywords: TMR; Hanwoo; Carcass quality; Feed intake; Profits