Evaluation of concurrent vaccinations with recombinant canarypox equine influenza virus and inactivated equine herpesvirus vaccines
Despite vaccination, equine influenza virus (EIV) and equine herpesvirus (EHV) infections still cause highly contagious respiratory diseases in horses. Recently, concurrent vaccination with EIV and EHV was suggested as a new approach; however, there have been no reports of concurrent vaccination with recombinant canarypox EIV and inactivated EHV vaccines. In this study, we aimed to compare the EIV-specific immune responses induced by concurrent administrations of a recombinant canarypox EIV vaccine and an inactivated bivalent EHV vaccine with those induced by a single recombinant canarypox EIV vaccine in experimental horse and mouse models. Serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from immunized animals after vaccination. EIV-specific serum antibody levels, serum hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) titers, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) levels were measured by ELISA, HI assay, and qPCR, respectively. Concurrent EIV and EHV vaccine administration significantly increased IFN-γ production, without compromising humoral responses. Our data demonstrate that concurrent vaccination with EIV and EHV vaccines can enhance EIV-specific cellular responses in horses.