Quantitative Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA in Porcine-Mouse Cloned Embryos
The aim of the research is to identify that porcine oocytes can function as recipients for interspecies cloning and have the ability to develop to blastocysts. Furthermore each mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in interspecises cloned embryos was analyzed. For the study, mouse-porcine and porcine-porcine cloned embryos were produced with mouse fetal fibroblasts (MFF) and porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFF), respectively, introduced as donor cells into enucleated porcine oocytes. The developmental rate and cell numbers of blastocysts between intraspecies porcine-porcine and interspecies mouse-porcine cloned embryos were compared and real-time PCR was performed for the estimate of mouse and porcine mtDNA copy number in mouse-porcine cloned embryos at different stages.There was no significant difference in the developmental rate or total blastocyst number between mouse-porcine cloned embryos and porcine-porcine cloned embryos (11.1±0.9%, 25±3.5 vs. 10.1±1.2%, 24±6.3). In mouse-porcine reconstructed embryos, the copy numbers of mouse somatic cell-derived mtDNA decreased between the 1-cell and blastocyst stages, whereas the copy number of porcine oocyte-derived mtDNA significantly increased during this period, as assessed by real-time PCR analysis. In our real-time PCR analysis, we improved the standard curve construction-based method to analyze the level of mtDNA between mouse donor cells and porcine oocytes using the copy number of mouse beta-actin DNA as a standard. Our findings suggest that porcine-mouse cloned embryos have the ability to develop to blastocysts in vitro and exhibit mitochondrial heteroplasmy from the 1-cell to blastocyst stages and the mouse-derived mitochondria can be gradually replaced with those of the porcine oocyte in the early developmental stages of mouse-porcine cloned embryos.