Impact of rumen cannulation surgery on rumen microbiota composition in Hanwoo steers

Minseok Kim1, Tansol Park2, Cheolju Park1, Youl-Chang Baek3, Ara Cho4, Han Gyu Lee4, Eunju Kim4, Eun-Yeong Bok4, Young-Hun Jung4, Tai-Young Hur4, Yoon Jung Do4,*
Author Information & Copyright
1Division of Animal Science, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Korea.
2Department of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Anseong 17546, Korea.
3Animal Nutrition & Physiology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Wanju 55365, Korea.
4Division of Animal Diseases & Health, National Institute of Animal Science, Wanju 55365, Korea.
*Corresponding Author: Yoon Jung Do, Division of Animal Diseases & Health, National Institute of Animal Science, Wanju 55365, Korea, Republic of. E-mail:

© Copyright 2024 Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Rumen cannulation is a surgical technique used to collect rumen contents from ruminants. However, rumen cannulation surgery may potentially impact the composition of the rumen microbiota. This study aimed to examine the longitudinal alterations in the rumen microbiota composition of Hanwoo steers after cannulation surgery. In this study, eight Hanwoo steers were used; four steers underwent rumen cannulation surgery (cannulation group), while the remaining four were left intact (control group). Rumen samples were collected from all eight steers using the stomach tubing method on the day before surgery (day 0) and on postoperative days 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, 24, and 28, resulting in 80 samples (10 timepoints × 8 animals). The microbiota of all 80 samples were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing with Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology version 2 (QIIME2). There were no significant differences (<italic>p</italic> &gt; 0.05) in all major phyla and most major genera representing at least 0.5% of total sequences across all 80 samples between the control and cannulation groups on the preoperative and postoperative days. However, while the alpha diversity indices did not differ (<italic>p</italic> &gt; 0.05) between the two groups on the preoperative day, they significantly differed (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) between the two groups on the postoperative days. Further, the overall microbial distribution based on both unweighted and weighted principal coordinate analysis plots significantly differed (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) between the two groups on both the preoperative and postoperative days. Orthogonal polynomial contrasts indicated that major genera and microbial diversity in the cannulation group decreased following surgery but returned to their initial states by postoperative day 28. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that rumen cannulation surgery affects some major taxa and microbial diversity, suggesting that the rumen cannulation method can alter the composition of rumen microbiota in Hanwoo steers.

Keywords: 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing; Hanwoo steers; Rumen cannulation surgery; Rumen microbiota