RESEARCH ARTICLE

Characteristics of low-nitrite pork emulsified-sausages with paprika oleoresin solution during refrigerated storage

Geon Ho Kim1https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4700-4485, Koo Bok Chin1,*https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8062-6331
Author Information & Copyright
1Department of Animal Science, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Korea
*Corresponding author: Koo Bok Chin, Department of Animal Science, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Korea, Tel: +82-62-530-2121, E-mail: kbchin@chonnam.ac.kr

© Copyright 2021 Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Received: Aug 05, 2020; Revised: Nov 27, 2020; Accepted: Dec 07, 2020

Published Online: Mar 31, 2021

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate quality characteristics of low-nitrite emulsified-sausages (ESs, < 75 ppm) containing paprika oleoresin solution (POS) for replacing sodium nitrite (NaNO2). Pork ESs were prepared with four treatments (reference (REF), 150 ppm NaNO2; TRT1, 0 ppm NaNO2 + 0.1% POS; TRT2, 37.5 ppm NaNO2 + 0.1% POS; and TRT3, 75 ppm NaNO2 + 0.1% POS). The physicochemical and texture properties, microbial counts, residual nitrite and thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARS) were measured during refrigerated storage of 35 days. Although TRT2 and TRT3 had lower levels of NaNO2, they had higher redness and yellowness than REF (p < 0.05). Microbial counts of total bacterial counts and Enterobacteriaceae of TRT2 and TRT3 were similar to those of REF (p > 0.05). Expressible moisture percentages (EM, %) of TRT2 and TRT3 were lower than those of REF (p < 0.05). TBARS values of TRT2 and TRT3 were not different from those of REF (p > 0.05). Among treatments, TRT1 had the highest TBARS values (p < 0.05). In conclusion, 0.1% POS in combination with 37.5 ppm NaNO2 would have quality characteristics similar to those of REF. Therefore, approximately 3/4 of the initial nitrite level could be replaced with 0.1% POS, and eventually developed healthier pork products.

Keywords: Low-nitrite emulsified sausage; Paprika oleoresin solution; Quality characteristics

INTRODUCTION

Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is an essential curing ingredient for the manufacture of meat products, such as ham and sausages. When nitrite is added to the manufacture of meat products, it reacts with myoglobin in muscles, resulting in the formation of a pink color pigment, named nitrosohemochrome [1,2]. Because the color of meat products is one of important purchasing factors for consumers [3]. Nitrite is highly related to the commercial value of meat products. In addition, it also improves sensory characteristics by providing unique flavor to meat products [4,5], and extend the shelf-life of meat products by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms and toxin production of Clostridium botulinum, which produced the toxin that causes food poisoning [6,7].

However, if excess NaNO2 was taken by eating foods containing nitroso compounds, N-nitrosamine, a carcinogen, might be produced by combining NaNO2 and amino acids or secondary amines in human’s digestive system [8,9]. Furthermore, processed meats are classified as carcinogens by the World Health Organization (WHO) [10]. In general, consumers had limited knowledge about nitrite being added to meat products [11]. To satisfy consumers who want to eat healthier meat products and increase their preference for meat products, it is necessary to replace nitrite or reduce the level of nitrite by replacing the color development function and storage extension function of nitrite. For this purpose, studies have been conducted using red beet [12], anka rice [13], Opuntia ficus-indica pigment [14], and purple sweet potato powder [15].

Paprika (Capsicum annuum var. angulosum) is an annual plant of Solanaceae Capsicum and Anmuum. It has considerable amounts of natural antioxidants, such as vitamin C and E, tocopherol, and carotenoids [16]. In addition, it has been reported that capsanthin, a red pigment carotenoid in red paprika fruit, could enhance the redness of meat products [17]. Considering these findings, paprika might be suitable as a natural substance that can substitute and reduce the addition amount of nitrite because it can increase the redness of meat products and improve their shelf-life.

Paprika oleoresin is a lipophilic matrix that is produced by processing paprika fruit. It is mainly composed of glyceride, liposoluble polyphenolic antioxidants and carotenoid pigments and used as a colorant for meat-based meals in the food industries [18,19]. Paprika oleoresin has excellent coloring capacity because it is composed of high carotenoid concentration [18,20,21]. Therefore, it is enough to represent the coloring effect of paprika [22]. Considering the antioxidant effect and color stability of paprika oleoresin, the addition of that to the meat products might reduce or replace the content of NaNO2. However, there were not many studies regarding these topics. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate quality characteristics, and storage properties of low-nitrite pork emulsified-sausage (ES) added with paprika oleoresin solution (POS) for the development of low-nitrite pork products.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Materials

Raw meat and fat used in the experiment were from 1st grade castrated crossbreed (Landrace × Yorkshire). Back fat was purchased from a retail meat market (Hyundai Retail Meat Market, Gwangju, Korea). After removing connective tissues and external fat, raw hams were minced using meat chopper (M-12S, Korea Fuji Kogyo, hwaseong, Korea), vacuum packaged, and stored frozen until utilized. Fat was cut off from the surface of the raw material, ground using a meat grinder, and stored at −50°C. Paprika oleoresin was obtained from Kalsec (Kalamazoo, MI, USA). Sunflower seed oil used to make POS was purchased from a local supermarket. Paprika oleoresin and sunflower seed oil were diluted to approximately 20 times (pH 3.43, CIE color value was L* = 52.1, a* = 55.4, b* = 54.1, main ingredient is lipid), respectively.

Preparation of emulsified-sausages

Detailed formulation for ESs is listed in Table 1. After raw meat was mixed with curing ingredients with ice water using a hood mixer (Mixer, HMC-401, Hanil Electric, Seoul, Korea), fat and POS were added and emulsified. The stuffed meat batter was heated in a constant temperature water bath (WB-22, Daihan Scientific, Seoul, Korea) at 75°C for 30 min, cooled, and stored at 10°C until analyzed. Quality characteristics of ESs were measured on the 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days after preparation.

Table 1. Formulation of pork emulsified-sausages with various content of sodium nitrite and paprika oleoresin solution
Ingredients (%) Treatment
REF TRT1 TRT2 TRT3
Raw pork meat 60.0 60.0 60.0 60.0
Fat 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0
Water 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0
Non meat ingredients
 Salt 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50
 Sodium tripolyphosphate 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40
 Sodium erythorbate 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
 Sodium nitrite 0.015 0.00 0.00375 0.0075
 Paprika oleoresin solution
  Oleoresin paprika 0.00 0.005 0.005 0.005
  Sunflower seed oil 0.00 0.095 0.095 0.095
Total 100.0 100.0 100.1 100.1

REF, reference (150 ppm sodium nitrite); TRT1, treatment 1 (0 ppm sodium nitrite, 0.1% paprika oleoresin solution), TRT2, treatment 2 (37.5 ppm sodium nitrite, 0.1% paprika oleoresin solution); TRT3, treatment 3 (75 ppm sodium nitrite, 0.1% paprika oleoresin solution).

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pH and color measurements

The pH values of sausages were determined using a Minolta Color Reader (CR-10, Minolta, Tokyo, Japan). Measurements for pH were performed 5 times per sample, and the means of the values were calculated.

The color values were measured by CIE L*, CIE a*, and CIE b * using a Minolta Color Reader (CR-10, Minolta, Osaka, Japan). After color values were measured six times, results were averaged for these six measurements (CIE color value of the standard white plate was L* = 94.8, a* = 1.0, b* = 0.1).

Proximate composition

Proximate composition was determined according to the AOAC [23]. Moisture content (%) was determined with the dry oven method. Fat content (%) was determined with the Soxhlet extraction method and the protein content (%) was determined with the Kjeldahl method.

Cooking loss (CL)

CL (%) was measured based on the weight of sausage before and after heating. It was calculated by substituting the following formula.

Cookingloss (%)= Sample weight ( g ) ( before cooking - after cooking ) Sample weight before heating (g) × 100
Texture profile analysis

Samples were prepared by setting a shape of 1.25 cm in diameter and 1.3 cm in height. Hardness (gf), springiness (mm), gumminess, chewiness, and cohesiveness of each sample were measured ten times with an Instron Universal Machine (Model 3344, Instron, Canton, MA, USA).

Microbiological analysis

Microbial counts were performed by mixing 10 g of homogenized sausage samples with 90 mL of sterile distilled water and diluting them to in appropriate proportion. Total plate count (TPC) and violet red bile (VRB) agar were used for the determination of a total number of bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae, respectively. After applying diluted samples onto agar plates, plates were incubated for 48 hrs at 37°C. Results are expressed as log CFU/g.

Expressible moisture (EM)

EM (%) was prepared by cutting the sausage into a rectangular parallelepiped shape of about 1.5 g. The sample was wrapped in three equal pieces of Whatman #3 filter paper, placed into a conical tube, and centrifuged at 1,660×g (VS-5500, Vision Science, Gyeongsan, Korea) for 15 min. The amount of water liberated from the sample in the filter paper was then measured and substituted into the following formula.

Expressible moisture (%) = Expressible water weight of filter paper ( g ) Sample weight (g) × 100
Residual nitrite

Residual nitrite level (ppm) was determined by modifying the method of AOAC [23]. Briefly, approximately 5 g of ground sausage sample was mixed with 300 mL of distilled water and heated for 1 hr in a constant temperature water bath (WB-22, Daihan Scientific) at 100°C. After filtration, the sample was diluted with distilled water to make a mixture of 500 mL. Approximately 2.5 mL of sulfanilamide solution was added to 25 mL of this mixture, vortexed, and allowed to react at room temperature for about 5 min. Then, 2.5 mL of N-(1-Naphthyl) ethylene dihydrochloride solution was added to 25 mL of this mixture, vortexed, and allowed to react at room temperature for about 5 min. The absorbance was measured using a spectrophotometer (Model UV-1601, Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan) at a wavelength of 540 nm. The measured absorbance was assigned to a standard curve obtained by measuring the absorbance of nitrite solution to derive the residual amount of nitrite.

Thiobarbituric acid substances (TBARS)

TBARS was measured using the method of Sinnhuber and Yu [24]. Briefly, 2 g of ground sausage sample, 3 mL of thiobarbituric acid, and 17 mL of trichloroacetic acid (100 mg/mL) were mixed by vortexing, homogenized, and heated in a water bath (WB-22, Daihan Scientific) at 100°C for 30 min. After heating, samples were cooled at room temperature, then 5 mL of the supernatant of the sample and 5 mL of chloroform were vortexed together for 1 min, mixed, and centrifuged at 3,000 rpm (Model VS-5500, Vision Science) for about 5 min. Then, 3 mL of the supernatant of the sample was mixed with 3 mL of petroleum ether for 1 min by vortexing. The mixture was then centrifuged at 3,000 rpm for 10 min. The absorbance of the reaction product was measured using a spectrophotometer (Model UV-1601, Shimadzu) at a wavelength of 532 nm. The TBARS value was calculated by substituting the measured absorbance into the following equation.

TBARS value (mg of MDA/kg of sample) = O .D . value× 9 .48 Sample weight (kg)
Statistical analysis

The whole experiments were performed in triplicate. The mean and standard deviation of the mean were calculated using IBM SPSS Statistics 23 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). This experiment was carried out with two-way ANOVA (treatments × storage time). If the interaction between two factors were observed (p < 0.05), then the data were separated by treatments within the storage time or storage time within the treatments. If no interaction between two factors were observed (p > 0.05), then the data were pooled by treatments or storage time. Post ANOVA was performed by Duncan’s multiple range test at significance level of 0.05.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

pH and color measurement

Since results of pH and color had no interaction between the treatment and storage time, data were pooled by treatment in a storage time and storage time in a treatment. Results of pH among all treatments and storage time were not different (Table 2). As shown in Table 2, L* values of TRT1 were the highest among all treatments (p < 0.05), while those of other treatments were similar (p > 0.05). Measured a* values were higher in the order of TRT3 > TRT2 > REF > TRT1 (p < 0.05). Although lower levels of NaNO2 were added into TRT2 and TRT3 compared to the level added to REF (150 ppm NaNO2), a* values of TRT2 and TRT3 were higher than those of REF due to the additional effect of POS, whereas b* values were highest in TRT1 and lowest in REF. The addition of POS increased the yellowness which indicated that POS might increase both a* and b* values. In a previous study, when approximately 1% paprika oleoresin was added to the oil for marinating chicken breast, a* and b* values of treatments containing POS were increased by 0.87 and 3.82, respectively [26]. This is because carotenoid, a red and yellow pigment, present in paprika oleoresin. L*, a*, and b* values of all treatments did not show significant change during refrigerated storage (p > 0.05).

Table 2. The pH and color values of emulsified-sausages with various content of sodium nitrite and paprika oleoresin solution
pH CIE L* CIE a* CIE b*
Treatment
 REF 6.06 ± 0.07a 73.6 ± 0.73b 10.7 ± 0.53c 6.19 ± 0.74d
 TRT1 6.05 ± 0.09a 74.9 ± 1.04a 6.60 ± 0.46d 9.62 ± 0.56a
 TRT2 6.08 ± 0.08a 73.9 ± 1.37b 11.7 ± 0.57b 7.51 ± 0.20c
 TRT3 6.08 ± 0.08a 73.2 ± 0.89b 12.3 ± 0.58a 7.86 ± 0.32b
Storage time (d)
 0 6.08 ± 0.08a 73.8 ± 1.04a 10.5 ± 2.18a 7.74 ± 1.56a
 3 6.11 ± 0.09a 73.9 ± 1.36a 10.2 ± 2.42a 7.80 ± 1.48a
 7 6.10 ± 0.08a 73.9 ± 1.36a 10.3 ± 2.57a 7.79 ± 1.55a
 14 6.05 ± 0.12a 74.1 ± 1.06a 10.4 ± 2.39a 7.87 ± 1.40a
 21 6.03 ± 0.06a 73.8 ± 1.28a 10.3 ± 2.34a 7.72 ± 1.25a
 28 6.06 ± 0.06a 73.9 ± 1.12a 10.3 ± 2.32a 7.95 ± 1.10a
 35 6.05 ± 0.06a 74.1 ± 1.41a 10.3 ± 2.44a 7.69 ± 1.21a

a–d Mean having same superscripts in a same column are not different (p > 0.05).

REF, reference (150 ppm sodium nitrite); TRT1, treatment 1 (0 ppm sodium nitrite, 0.1% paprika oleoresin solution), TRT2, treatment 2 (37.5 ppm sodium nitrite, 0.1% paprika oleoresin solution); TRT3, treatment 3 (75 ppm sodium nitrite, 0.1% paprika oleoresin solution).

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Proximate composition

There were no significant differences in water, fat, or protein contents (%) among all treatments (p > 0.05), the addition of POS did not significantly affect proximate compositions of ESs (data are not shown). This result might be due to the lower level (0.1%) of POS added into the sausage. According to Yusop et al. [19], even though the contents of paprika oleoresin was increased up to 3 times, the marinated chicken breast prepared with paprika oleoresin didn’t change in moisture and fat contents (%).

Cooking loss

As shown in Table 3, CL (%) were not significantly different among treatments (p > 0.05). It indicated that different additional levels of NaNO2 and POS had no effect on CL of ESs. Kim and Chin [27] reported that CL of pork sausage with paprika powder were similar to those of control without paprika powder.

Table 3. The cooking loss and texture profile analysis of pork emulsified-sausages with content of sodium nitrite and paprika oleoresin solution
Treatment
REF TRT1 TRT2 TRT3
Cooking loss (%) 2.05 ± 1.53a 1.73 ± 0.37a 1.35 ± 0.15a 1.32 ± 0.69a
Hardness (gf) 3,688 ± 381a 3,226 ± 418a 3,529 ± 339a 3,650 ± 380a
Springiness (mm) 4.32 ± 0.40a 4.42 ± 0.19a 4.42 ± 0.16a 4.48 ± 0.34a
Gumminess 36.2 ± 1.43a 36.8 ± 2.03a 36.6 ± 2.50a 35.9 ± 3.79a
Chewiness 154 ± 2.24a 157 ± 4.70a 154 ± 1.84a 154 ± 3.31a
Cohesiveness 0.01 ± 0.00a 0.01 ± 0.00a 0.01 ± 0.00a 0.01 ± 0.00a

REF, reference (150 ppm sodium nitrite); TRT1, treatment 1 (0 ppm sodium nitrite, 0.1% paprika oleoresin solution), TRT2, treatment 2 (37.5 ppm sodium nitrite, 0.1% paprika oleoresin solution); TRT3, treatment 3 (75 ppm sodium nitrite, 0.1% paprika oleoresin solution).

a Mean having same superscripts in a same row are not different (p > 0.05).

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Texture profile analysis

The addition of POS did not affect the textural properties such as hardness, springiness, gumminess, chewiness, or cohesiveness (p > 0.05) (Table 3). In a previous study, Bázan‐Lugo et al. [17] evaluated quality characteristics of sausages added with or without 1.5% of paprika powder, and reported that the similar hardness and springiness were measured, regardless of the addition of paprika powder. Revilla and Quintana [28] also reported that the addition of paprika did not affect the textural properties of chorizo type of sausage (p > 0.05). Based on these results, the paprika powder might not affect the textural properties of the meat products.

Microbiological analysis

Table 4 shows microbiological counts of pork emulsion type sausages added with POS. Total microbial counts (TPC) of TRT1 were higher than those of other treatments (p < 0.05). This probably due to the absence of NaNO2, which might have antimicrobial activity against many microbial species including Pseudomonas aeruginosa [29]. TRT2 and TRT3 showed similar total microbial counts to REF, indicating that addition of POS might have the antimicrobial activity. De Oliveira et al. [30] inoculated Clostridium perfringens into mortadella-type sausages added with 0, 100, and 200 ppm of NaNO2, respectively, and they found that the higher the NaNO2 content, the lower the number of microorganisms. The addition of 200 ppm of NaNO2 into the sausage was lower than those with 100 ppm after 30 days of storage (p < 0.05). This means that higher ingoing level of nitrite could retard microbial growth more quicky. Microbial counts of Enterobacteriaceae higher than 102 CFU/g were detected in TRT1. However, they were not detected in REF, TRT2, or TRT3. Carotenoids present in paprika could inhibit the growth of microorganisms such as Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus oryzae, and Saccharomyces [29]. Paprika extracts including paprika oleoresin can destroy microorganisms in the biofilm [31]. Therefore, the addition of POS seems to reduce total bacterial counts and the microbial counts of Enterobacteriaceae counts. In this study, total bacterial counts were detected at more than 102 CFU/g from 14 days, and the microbial counts of Enterobacteriaceae counts were detected at more than 102 CFU/g from 21 days.

Table 4. The microbiological counts (Log CFU/g) and expressible moisture (%) of pork emulsified-sausages with content of sodium nitrite and paprika oleoresin solution
TPC VRB EM
Treatment
 REF 2.04 ±2.03b < 2.00b 18.8 ± 0.76b
 TRT1 2.72 ± 2.05a 2.05 ± 1.97a 19.0 ± 1.07a
 TRT2 2.19 ± 2.03b < 2.00b 18.5 ± 0.89c
 TRT3 2.03 ± 2.04b < 2.00b 18.5 ± 0.84c
Storage time (d)
 0 < 2.00d < 2.00d 17.7 ± 0.18f
 3 < 2.00d < 2.00d 18.0 ± 0.39e
 7 < 2.00d < 2.00d 18.0 ± 0.33e
 14 2.30 ± 1.40c < 2.00d 18.5 ± 0.37d
 21 3.90 ± 0.24b 3.31 ± 0.32c 19.2 ± 0.42c
 28 4.31 ± 0.27ab 3.78 ± 0.37b 15.5 ± 0.38b
 35 4.61 ± 0.32a 4.17 ± 0.48a 20.1 ± 0.39a

a–f Mean having same superscripts in a same column are not different (p > 0.05).

REF, reference (150 ppm sodium nitrite); TRT1, treatment 1 (0 ppm sodium nitrite, 0.1% paprika oleoresin solution), TRT2, treatment 2 (37.5 ppm sodium nitrite, 0.1% paprika oleoresin solution); TRT3, treatment 3 (75 ppm sodium nitrite, 0.1% paprika oleoresin solution).

TPC, total plate counts; VRB, violet red agar; EM, expressible moisture.

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Expressible moisture

As shown in Table 4, EM (%) of TRT1 were the highest among all treatments (p < 0.05). These results might be partially due to the lowest water holding capacity of sausage without NaNO2. Thus, NaNO2 might be combined with other curing agents to improve water holding capacity in meat products [32]. On the other hand, EMs of TRT1 and TRT2 were lower than those of REF (p < 0.05).

Residual nitrite (RN)

Table 5 shows results of RN (ppm) of pork ESs with POS during refrigerated storage. Since RN was an interaction between treatment and storage day (p < 0.05), data were separated out by treatment in a storage time and storage time in a treatment. Amounts of RN decreased gradually with increased storage time (p < 0.05). RN levels of TRT2 on 0 and 3 days were similar (p > 0.05). All subsequent values were different from each other on each measurement day (p < 0.05). Since TRT1 did not contain NaNO2, no RN was present during the storage period, and its RN levels were lower than those in other treatments (p < 0.05). Roberts [33] determined the microbiological role of nitrates and nitrites using bacon, and reported that higher RN tends to be higher antimicrobial activity. According to this result, REF is expected to have long-term antimicrobial activity. Even though the residual amount was lower at 35 days, TRT2 and TRT3 didn’t differ from REF in terms of microbial counts. These results might be due to the influence of POS. As shown in Table 5, RN levels of ESs were proportional to added levels of NaNO2. Thus, RN levels of ESs at 35 days of storage were significantly influenced by the amount of NaNO2 added. If the RN level is low (< 20 ppm), the possibility of producing N-nitrosamine also tends to be lower. Ahn et al. [34] reported that higher volatile N-nitrosamine levels (199 ppb) detected in pork sausage with higher RN level (104 ppm), whereas those with lower volatile N-nitrosamine levels (81.8 ppm) had lower volatile N-nitrosamine levels (28.8 ppb).

Table 5. The residual nitrite (ppm) of pork emulsified-sausages with content of sodium nitrite and paprika oleoresin solution
Treatments Storage time (d)
0 3 7 14 21 28 35
REF 21.2 ± 1.03Aa 17.8 ± 0.17Ab 14.9 ± 0.26Ac 9.64 ± 0.22Ad 8.68 ± 0.07Ae 6.78 ± 0.07Af 4.88 ± 0.09Ag
TRT1 ND ND ND ND N D ND ND
TRT2 6.90 ± 0.23Ca 5.45 ± 1.26Cab 4.16 ± 0.34Cb 3.01 ± 0.65Cc 1.69 ± 0.34Cd 0.83 ± 0.22Ce 0.55 ± 0.03Cf
TRT3 9.45 ± 0.11Ba 8.95 ± 0.06Bb 7.18 ± 0.09Bc 5.58 ± 1.45Bd 4.17 ± 0.14Be 2.87 ± 0.28Bf 1.91 ± 1.14Bg

REF, reference (150 ppm sodium nitrite); TRT1, treatment 1 (0 ppm sodium nitrite, 0.1% paprika oleoresin solution), TRT2, treatment 2 (37.5 ppm sodium nitrite, 0.1% paprika oleoresin solution); TRT3, treatment 3 (75 ppm sodium nitrite, 0.1% paprika oleoresin solution).

A–C Mean having same superscripts in a same column are not different (p > 0.05).

a–d Mean having same superscripts in a same row are not different (p > 0.05).

ND, not detected.

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Thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARS)

Fig. 1 shows the results of measured TBARS of pork ESs during storage days. There were no significant differences in TBARS values among REF, TRT2, and TRT3 during storage periods from day 0 to 35 days (p > 0.05). TBARS values of TRT1 increased rapidly from 0 to 3 days, while those of other treatments, including REF increased slightly during the storage time. REF and TRT2 showed no changes in TBARS value from 21 days to the end of storage (p > 0.05). However, TRT2 and TRT3 did not change in TBARS values from 14 days to the end of the measurement (p > 0.05). It is known that nitrite has ability to effectively delay the oxidation of cured meat [7]. In this study, TBARS values of TRT1 were the highest among all treatments. however, those of TRT2 and TRT3 added with nitrite at 37.5 ppm and 75 ppm, respectively, and treatments with POS were not different from those of REF (p > 0.05). Kim et al. [35] reported that 0.32% of oleoresin paprika added to pork patties could effectively inhibit lipid oxidation to replace NaNO2. This suggests that TRT2 and TRT3 might have similar levels of lipid oxidation, although added levels of nitrite were lower than the level added to REF. These results also suggest that POS might have antioxidant activity in meat products.

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Fig. 1. The changes of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances of pork with content of sodium nitrite and paprika oleoresin solution. REF, reference (150 ppm sodium nitrite); TRT1, treatment 1 (0 ppm sodium nitrite, 0.1% paprika oleoresin solution), TRT2, treatment 2 (37.5 ppm sodium nitrite, 0.1% paprika oleoresin solution); TRT3, treatment 3 (75 ppm sodium nitrite, 0.1% paprika oleoresin solution).
Download Original Figure

CONCLUSION

The addition of 0.1% POS increased the redness and yellowness of the pork ESs. Microbial counts and lipid oxidation of ESs added with 37.5 or 75 ppm NaNO2 and 0.1% POS were similar to those of ESs added with 150 ppm NaNO2. As a result, ESs added with 0.1% POS and 37.5 ppm NaNO2 are similar quality characteristics to REF. Therefore, approximately 3/4 of ingoing level of NaNO2 could be replaced with 0.1% POS in the manufacture of regular-fat sausage.

Competing interests

No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

Funding sources

This work was supported by technology development program (# PJ013809022018) for Rural Development Administration, Korea.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by technology development program (# PJ013809022018) for Rural Development Administration, Korea.

Availability of data and material

Upon reasonable request, the datasets of this study can be available from the corresponding author.

Authors’ contributions

Conceptualization: Kim GH, Chin KB.

Data curation: Kim GH.

Formal analysis: Kim GH, Chin KB.

Investigation: Kim GH.

Writing - original draft: Kim GH.

Writing - review & editing: Chin KB.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

This article does not require IRB/IACUC approval because there are no human and animal participants.

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2019 JCR Impact Factor: 1.685

The 2019 Journal Citation Reports (JCR) was announced, and the impact factor of JAST was determined to be 1.685.

We would like to ask for your continued interest and support in our journal.

Thank you.

JAST Editorial Office


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